Técnicas de Diagnóstico en la Pandemia
AbstractCoronaviruses (CoV) are a group of enveloped, single-stranded (positive-sense) RNA viruses belonging to the nidoviral order, family Coronaviridae. They are an important family of pathogens that affect the human respiratory system can produce clinical pictures ranging from the common cold, with seasonal pattern in winter, to more serious ones such as those produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Near East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) viruses and the latter responsible for the great global pandemic, SAR-Cov2, which causes the COVID-19 disease that has spread worldwide with very efficient transmission and a higher case fatality rate than seasonal influenza. Diagnostic tools for the detection and monitoring of COVID-19 have become an indispensable requirement to quantify the number of cases around the world and from this point to be able to take the corresponding sanitary and political measures to give a forceful response to the outbreaks that are appearing. Testing is vital clinical diagnostic tool, and the techniques available so far have been based on detection of viral genes (such as RT-PCR reference technique), detection of antibodies and detection of viral antigens. Diagnosis has enormous potential in the fight against diseases and in obtaining better health outcomes in the population. The Covid-19 pandemic focused on the preparedness needed to assess, analyze and identify the different variables of health care. With the extensive use of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technology, it is now possible to provide accurate and timely laboratory diagnostic test results to public health experts and other stakeholders in a robust manner. This contrasts sharply with the last influenza pandemic in 2009, in which diagnosis in many clinical settings was based primarily on clinical observations, resulting in an underestimation of the actual number of deaths caused by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus. Several studies worldwide show that diagnostic tests are an indispensable tool in clinical practice. First, because they provide critical information at every step of the patient pathway: from prognosis, preventive studies (screening), diagnosis to monitoring disease progression and predicting responses to treatment. And also because they play an increasingly important role in providing personalized, cost-effective, value-based healthcare. Even so, the value of diagnostic information is often not fully recognized by health systems. Diagnostic research and development helps develop products and solutions that lead to more patient-centered, outcome-based care. This helps enable healthcare professionals to make the right diagnoses at the right time.