Authors Xulei Wu1,2, Bingjie Dang2, Hong Wang5, Xiulong Wu1,*, and Yuchao Yang2,3,4,* 1School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China. 2Key Laboratory of Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MOE), School of Integrated Circuits, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
Bacteria-mediated drug delivery systems comprising nanotherapeutics conjugated onto bacteria synergistically augment the efficacy of both therapeutic modalities in cancer therapy. Nanocarriers preserve therapeutics' bioavailability and reduce systemic toxicity, while bacteria selectively colonize the cancerous tissue, impart intrinsic and immune-mediated antitumor effects, and propel nanotherapeutics interstitially. The optimal bacteria-nanoparticle (NP) conjugates would carry the maximal NP load with minimal motility speed hindrance for effective interstitial distribution. Furthermore, a well-defined and repeatable NP attachment density distribution is crucial to determining these biohybrid systems' efficacious dosage and robust performance. Herein, we utilized our Nanoscale Bacteria-Enabled Autonomous Delivery System (NanoBEADS) platform to investigate the effects of assembly process parameters of mixing method, volume, and duration on NP attachment density and repeatability. We also evaluated the effect of linkage chemistry and NP size on NP attachment density, viability, growth rate, and motility of NanoBEADS. We show that the linkage chemistry impacts NP attachment density while the self-assembly process parameters affect the repeatability and, to a lesser extent, attachment density. Lastly, the attachment density affects NanoBEADS' growth rate and motility in an NP size-dependent manner. These findings will contribute to the development of scalable and repeatable bacteria-nanoparticle biohybrids for applications in drug delivery and beyond. Corresponding author(s) Email: [email protected]
The explosive growth of data and information has motivated technological developments in computing systems that utilize them for efficiently discovering patterns and gaining relevant insights. Inspired by the structure and functions of biological synapses and neurons in the brain, neural network algorithms that can realize highly parallel computations have been implemented on conventional silicon transistor-based hardware. However, synapses composed of multiple transistors allow only binary information to be stored, and processing such digital states through complicated silicon neuron circuits makes low-power and low-latency computing difficult. Therefore, the attractiveness of the emerging memories and switches for synaptic and neuronal elements, respectively, in implementing neuromorphic systems, which are suitable for performing energy-efficient cognitive functions and recognition, is discussed herein. Based on a literature survey, recent progress concerning memories shows that novel strategies related to materials and device engineering to mitigate challenges are presented to primarily achieve nonvolatile analog synaptic characteristics. Attempts to emulate the role of the neuron in various ways using compact switches and volatile memories are also discussed. It is hoped that this review will help direct future interdisciplinary research on device, circuit, and architecture levels of neuromorphic systems. Corresponding author(s) Email: [email protected]
Excavation of regolith is the enabling process for many of the in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) efforts that are being considered to aid in the human exploration of the moon and Mars. Most proposed planetary excavation systems are integrated with a wheeled vehicle, but none yet have used a screw-propelled vehicle which can significantly enhance the excavation performance. Therefore, CASPER, a novel screw-propelled excavation rover is developed and analyzed to determine its effectiveness as a planetary excavator. The excavation rate, power, velocity, cost of transport, and a new parameter, excavation transport rate, are analyzed for various configurations of the vehicle through mobility and excavation tests performed in silica sand. The optimal configuration yielded a 30 kg/hr excavation rate and 10.2 m/min traverse rate with an overall system mass of 3.4 kg and power draw of less than 30 W. These results indicate that this architecture shows promise as a planetary excavation because it provides significant excavation capability with low mass and power requirements. Corresponding author(s) Email: [email protected]
Proprioception, the ability to perceive one’s own configuration and movement in space, enables organisms to safely and accurately interact with their environment and each other. The underlying sensory nerves that make this possible are highly dense and use sophisticated communication pathways to propagate signals from nerves in muscle, skin and joints to the central nervous system wherein the organism can process and react to stimuli. In a step forward to realize robots with such perceptive capability, we propose a flexible sensor framework that incorporates a novel hybrid modeling strategy, taking advantage of computational mechanics and machine learning. We implement the sensor framework on a large, thin and flexible sensor that transforms sparsely distributed strains into continuous surface shape. Finite element (FE) analysis is utilized to determine sensor design parameters, while an FE model is built to enrich the morphological data used in the supervised training to achieve continuous surface reconstruction. A mapping between the local strain data and the enriched surface data is subsequently trained using ensemble learning. This hybrid approach enables real-time, robust and high-order surface shape reconstruction. The sensing performance is evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability, and feasibility with numerous scenarios, which has not been demonstrated and reported on such a large-scale (A4-paper-size) sensor before.
This Supporting Information includes:Figure S1, S2, S3Supplementary Video Supplementary Video S1: Locomotion of the mobile robot. Supplementary Video S2: Vortex deforming the liquid-liquid interface. Supplementary Video S3: Locomotion of the mobile robot without electrode attached. Supplementary Video S4: Locomotion of the mobile robot with reversed polarity. Supplementary Video S5: Drawing “SIT” by controlling a floating robot with multiple electrodes. Corresponding author Email: [email protected], [email protected]
This Supporting information includes:1. Component Selection and Performance of SFA2. Actuator Manufacturing and Preparation of Conductive Ink 3. Average Thickness of Conductive Coating layer on PU Foam4. Time Response of the Actuator in Different Modes 5. Characterization and Experimental Setup6. Measurement and Data Analysis7. Design Specifications of Soft Robotic Applications8. Supporting Video Corresponding author Email: [email protected], [email protected]
This Supporting Information includes the extended description of the superposition state of the asymmetric double-well system in vacuum system and in solution, truth tables for the residue pairs and their corresponding quantum logic gates, and figures for the double well potential energy surfaces and transmission spectra of the residue pairs.Corresponding Authors Email: [email protected] and [email protected]
Identifying Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) patients at risk of mortality or recurrence will facilitate prevention, timely treatment and improve clinical outcomes. We aim to establish an open-access web-based prediction system, which estimates CDI patients’ mortality and recurrence outcomes, and explains the machine learning prediction with patients’ characteristics. Prognostic models were developed using four various types of machine learning algorithms and statistical logistics regression model utilizing over 15,000 CDI patients from 41 hospitals in Hong Kong. The boosting-based machine learning algorithm Gradient Boosting Machine (Mortality AUC: 0.7878; Recurrence AUC: 0.7076) outperformed statistical models (Mortality AUC: 0.7573; Recurrence AUC: 0.6927) and other machine learning algorithms. The open-access prediction system for clinicians to assess and interpret the risk factors of CDI patients is now available at https://www.cdiml.care/. In this article, we explain the development of machine learning models and illustrate how to apply hyperparameter tuning with cross-validation to optimize the model accuracy.
Abstract:There is a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in preterm infants. Herein, spectrally detailed wavelet scalograms (WSs), derived from the 1024 Hz sampled electroencephalograms (EEG) of preterm fetal sheep after HI (n ¼ 7), are infused into a high-performance deep convolutional neural network (CNN) pattern classifier to identify high-frequency spike transient biomarkers. The deep WS-CNN pattern classifier identifies EEG spikes with remarkable accuracy of 99.81 ¼ 0.15% (area under curve, AUC ¼ 1.000), cross-validated across 5010 EEG waveforms, during the first 6 h post-HI (42 h total), an important clinical period for diagnosis of HI brain injury. Further, a feature-fusion strategy is introduced to extract the spectrally dominant features of the raw EEG epochs to form robust 3D input matrix sets to be infused into the deep 2D-CNNs for pattern classification. The results show that the proposed WS-CNN approach is less sensitive to the potential morphological variations of spikes across all subjects compared to other deep CNNs and spectral-fuzzy classifiers, allowing the user to flexibly choose an approach depending on their computational requirements. Collectively, the data provide a reliable framework that could help support well-timed diagnosis of at-risk neonates in clinical practice.